Units Description


Class: Spearman.


    • Hacker Armament: Spear (2.75m); Short Sword (ornamental).
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Pilos helmet, spear, tunic with sandals – a middle-class citizen. He may not be well equipped, but he makes up for it in gusto!
      • Advanced: Chalcidian helmet, bronze muscled cuirass, hoplon, spear, decorative xiphos, tunic and sandals.
      • Elite: crested Corinthian helmet, linothorax cuirass, hoplon with cloth hanging from bottom edge (to stop arrows), spear, decorative xiphos, greaves, tunic, sandals.
    • History: The basic unit of the Greek army and unique in its combat tactics. The Hoplite formed the core of the Greek army with a unique formation ready to hold all potential attacks.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Heavy close-quarter combat.
    • Special: May use the Phalanx formation after researching the "Othismos" technology.

Class: Javelinist.


    • Hacker Armament: Javelin; Short Sword (ornamental).
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Simple, with tunic, barefoot and bareheaded, and a bunch of javelins about 4 feet long.
      • Advanced: Pelta, javelins, tunic, boots, traditional Thracian cap
      • Elite: Pilos helmet, with decorative spear held in shield hand, pelta, javelins, boots, cape, tunic
    • History: Peltasts carry a special shield called a pelta (from which they derived their name). The shield is deliberately curved to allow the Peltast to throw javelins faster and over a greater range.
    • Garrison: 1.

Class: Archer.


    • Hacker Armament: Greek bow (smaller range than Persian bow; about 80% of the Persian equivalent).
    • Appearance: NOTE: Greek archers carried their quiver on their back. Bow is not too big, probably 3.5 to 4 feet in length.
      • Basic: Tunic, bow, quiver, sandals.. And no greaves.
      • Advanced: Advanced: Tunic, bow, quiver, Petasos hat or a similar looking broad-brimmed hat, sandals.
      • Elite: Elite: Tunic, bow, quiver, sandals, Pilos helmet, light linen cuirass – about as good as it gets for archers.
  • History: Cretan archers were the best archers in Greece. They used a different bow with longer range.
  • Garrison: 1.
  • Function: Good against Infantry.
  • Special: Cretan bow could be used a special tech.


Class: Cavalry Swordsman.


    • Hacker Armament: Short sword.
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Tunic. Straw hat. No footwear.
      • Advanced: Linothorax. Straw hat. Sandals.
      • Elite: Bronze cuirass. Bronze Greek helmet with crest.
    • History: The Greek cavalry was formed by the rich and aristocrats in ancient Greece, because breeding horses was expensive. They were therefore not used in great numbers.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Good against Ranged Infantry only.

Class: Cavalry Javelinist. 


    • Hacker Armament: Cavalry Javelin.
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Tunic. Cloak.
      • Advanced: Quilted armor. Straw hat. Cloak
      • Elite: Linothorax. Bronze Boeotian helmet. Boots. Cloak.
    • History: Greek scout cavalry, good for hunting and harassing the enemy. The best such cavalry in Greece come from the pastoral territories of Thessaly.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Good hunter.


Class: Female Citizen.

    • Appearance: A long himation covered by a short chiton. Long hair hair pinned up.
    • History: Even though Greece was a male-dominated world, women did play a significant role in it. The most outstanding examples were Sappho, the famous poet, and Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good at gathering food. Has an 'aura' that boosts the productivity of citizen-soldiers around her.

Class: Healer.

    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Chiton (color selected by player), with a long white Himation wrapped around him.
      • Helmet: None.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): Old man. White hair. Optional beard.
    • History: The art of medicine was widely practiced in Classical Greece. Hippocrates was the first physician to separate religion and superstition from actual medicine, and many others followed his lead.
    • Garrison: 1.

Class: Trader.

    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Normal chiton with himation (leather boots).
      • Helmet: Wide brimmed hat.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): Donkey caravan.
      • Mount: Donkey.
    • History: The Greeks were traders also. While not as widely spread as sea trade, land trade nevertheless was practiced on a reasonable scale.
    • Garrison: 2.

Class: Fishing Ship.

    • History: In contrast to hunting, fishing was not held in high regard and Hellenic artwork is nearly devoid of fishing scenes. Nonetheless fishing was popular both as the poor man’s entertainment and as a viable alternative to farming as a major food source.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Capacity: 1; support, infantry
    • Function: Gathering: Only method of collecting meat from fish.
    • Special: Garrison a support unit or infantry unit inside to boost fishing rate.

Class: Merchant Ship.

    • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: The Greeks are natural sailors and traded heavily throughout the Mediterranean basin.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: Sets up trade routes between friendly Ports.
    • Special: Garrison a Trader inside to boost the amount of trade received.

Class: Bireme.

    • Shell: Single-tier, 25 rows.
    • History: Penteconters were employed from 800 BC, mostly as a light support unit in the Greek navy. After 600 BC, they were only seen in battle in very limited numbers. They were still in use by small states which could not afford a sufficient number of triremes for their navy.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: These ships were designed to go fast so they could transport troops to the sights of battles. They had a single tier (level) of 25 oarsmen on each side, and were called Penteconters.

Class: Trireme.

    • Shell: Three tiers of oars. Larger than the Penteconter.
    • History: The first Triremes were built circa 650BC, and by 500BC the Trireme was the most widely used heavy warship of the Greek city-states. In the Trireme the outriggers were now an integral part of the ship's hull. The Trireme also had a partial or full fighting deck above the rowers. The length of the Trireme remained approximately 35-38 meters, and the beam was approximately 3.5 meters. A Trireme carried 170 oarsmen, plus twenty sailors and fourteen marines in Greek navies. The top speed of a Trireme was approximately 11.5 knots. Some Triremes may have been able to reach higher speeds in short bursts. A Trireme travelling from Athens to Mytilene in 427BC made the 350 kilometer trip in only 24 hours, averaging eight knots (14.6 km/h). The Trireme could accelerate much faster than a Bireme or Penteconter, and was much more maneuverable. This gave the Trireme an advantage in combat, where higher speed and maneuverability meant a better chance of victory.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Function: The common tactics of the time were to ram one's opponent. Most ships at the time were equipped with a large battering ram at the bow which was used to crush the sides of an opponent. Another common tactic was to brush along the sides of the opponent's ship and snap all of the oars off. Once the ship was disabled and floundering in the waves, then the other ship could move in and finish its opponent. The Greeks employed the ramming tactics to excellent effect throughout out their naval battles. Speed was the key element for ramming and that required maneuverability and lightly armored ships.


Class: Ram.

    • Shell: Siege Tower
    • History: When Demetrius Poliorcetes besieged Salamis, in Cyprus, he instructed that a machine be constructed, which he called "the taker of cities." Its form was that of a square tower, each side 90 cubits high and 45 wide. It rested on four wheels, each eight cubits high. It was divided into nine stories, the lower of which contained machines for throwing great stones, the middle large catapults for throwing spears, and the highest, other machines for throwing smaller stones, together with smaller catapults. It was manned with 200 soldiers, besides those that moved it by pushing the parallel beams at the bottom.
    • Garrison: 5. <== Note largest garrison requirement you're likely to find.
    • Function: Functions much like a warship, but on land. Is able to garrison all types of units (except cavalry) to increase attack and other attributes, including other siege units. This in all probability could/should be a campaign and editor-only unit. However, once we implement walls and ships as spec'd, we'll have a better understanding of whether or not we can include the Helepolis in the standard game.
    • Special: May unload garrisoned units over enemy walls.

Class: Catapult

    • Shell: Stone-throwing catapult, similar to the Roman onager.
    • History: The Lithobolos (Stone Thrower) hurled stones of 10 lbs. (4.5 kilos) to 180 lbs. (82 kilos) in weight. They all looked alike and differed only in size: the dimensions being calculated by a complex mathematical formula based on the spring diameter. Such machines were normally brought to point-blank range (150-200 yards [157m - 185m]) and were capable of stripping the battlements from fortified walls.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: Anti-building siege. Used to take down Walls and Fortresses. 10-20% weaker than the Roman Ballista.
    • Special: Does bonus damage vs. enemy units garrisoned atop walls and towers.

Class: Ballista

    • Shell: Scorpion-like large arrows or "bolts."
    • History: The Oxybeles was designed in 375 BC, because the composite bow developed so fast that it grew too large and too powerful to be operated by a single human archer. The bow was placed on a tripod and a winch was fitted to draw it back. It was still made out of horn, wood and sinew, but it was bigger and more powerful then the gastraphetes bow. Because of that, the range was greater, and by placing the bow on a stable tripod, the accuracy of the shot was also greatly improved. However, the limits of the materials were nearly reached, and the engineers still wanted more power.
    • Garrison: 3.
    • Function: Building and Infantry killer. Smaller and weaker than the Roman Scorpion.
    • Special: Bonus vs. Infantry and Infantry Archers.


Class: Super Infantry Unit.

    • Hacker Armament: Spear (tied a lace around his spear to improve grip while thrusting over the wall of hostile shields); Xiphos (ornamental).
    • Appearance: Corinthian helmet with side-to-side large, bright red crest, linen cuirass, bronze greaves, spear, hoplon with large Spartan red Lambda symbol, Xiphos sheathed on left side.
    • History: The Spartans had a very peculiar form of government which enabled them to be professional soldiers. It not only enabled them, but actually forced them to be superior soldiers as a small group of Spartans had to dominate an enormous number of subjects and unwilling allies. The Spartan army was superior in Hellas, and in the rest of the known world. No other army was so well trained, and had such excellent equipment. They believed that traditional training was the key to success, and for centuries they were correct, as they never lost a battle in spite of their small numbers. Ironically enough, this concept ended the Spartan supremacy, as the Spartan phalanx could not resist the new sloped Theban phalanx and the invading integrated Macedonian forces. The end of the Spartan power marked the end of the domination of the phalanx.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good vs. Cavalry and Infantry. Their Achilles Heel is definitely archery, with no extra pierce armor when compared to the standard "Greek Hoplite." Uses Xiphos (sword) when not in formation. Uses Dory (spear) when in formation.
    • Special: Special (small; 10%) attack bonus vs. Persian units. Like Hoplites, Spartiates may use the Phalanx formation after the "Othismos" technology has been researched.

Class: Super Infantry Unit.

    • Hacker Armament:Kopis sword (when attacking enemy females, slingers, siege, and/or javelinists). Hoplite spear (dory) when in Phalanx formation.
    • Ranged Armament: Throwing Spear (primary)
    • Appearance: Early Thracian Style Helmet with vertical crest; Aspis shield with Gorgon Head texture (the only Greek unit with this shield texture - sacred to Athenians); No Greaves; No body armor; Loose-fitting chiton/tunic; Kopis sheathed on his left side; Sandals.
    • History: Ekdromos (literally: out runner) was a development of the hoplite. Development of the hoplite took many twists and turns based on the changing dynamics on the field of battle. Once armies began using Peltasts imported from Thrace something had to be done to counter this barrage of javelins thrown into the midst of a phalanx. The Thebans began to increase the armor of their hoplites, but the Athenians took a completely different approach and lightened the load for their infantry. The Ekdromoi would dash out from the phalanx, close with the enemy ranged units at speed, and cut them down at will. This approach also worked to harass more heavily armed troops as well, the enemy carrying too much weight to catch the vexatious Ekdromoi.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: This is LoE's version of the Eagle Warrior from Age of Kings: The Conquerors. Fast. Great for raiding and great against siege engines (too fast to be hit by siege projectiles)
    • Special: Bonused 100% vs. Female, Siege, Slinger, and Javelinist Class units. Uses his Kopis to slay these units. All other units he throws his spear like a Javelinist. It is short range, slow to reload, but very high attack strength.


Class: Super Infantry Unit.

    • Hacker Armament: 18-foot sarissa lance; Sword (ornamental).
    • Appearance: Thracian helmet, bronze muscled cuirass, round shield, sarissa (15 – 19 foot pike), kopis on left side, tunic
    • History: 'Foot Companions', these were the elite troops from the Macedonian phalanx, whom carried their Sarissas with both hands, the white shields being attached to their armor. The Sarissa and the new tactics they used were developed by Philip II under Theban influence. If properly protected by cavalry on both sides, the Pezhetairoi were virtually invincible to any kind of enemy unit. They were always deployed in deep formations of 16+.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Good against Cavalry and Infantry. Vulnerable to Archers, Slingers, and Javelinists. Vulnerable to Cavalry attacking from the rear. Movement: Slow.
    • Special: Syntagma formation after researching "Military Reforms."

Class: Super Cavalry Unit.

    • Hacker Armament: 18-foot sarissa lance; Sword (ornamental).
    • Appearance: Boeotian helmet with plume, bronze muscled cavalry cuirass (same as infantry but with wider bottom), greaves, sandals, 9-foot spear (sarissa), kopis on left side.
    • History: Macedonian noblemen made up this elite cavalry unit, which was key to victory for Macedonian kings starting with Philip II, whom increased their number from 600 to several thousand. The Companion Cavalry was also a preferred general stand.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: All around powerful unit, but best vs. Cavalry and Archers. Fast mobile units. Only weakness is vs. enemy SUs.


Class: Hero 1.

    • Hacker Armament: Xiphos
    • Ranged Armament: None
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Lino-thorax, Pericnimides (Bronze Greaves), tailored garments.
      • Helmet: No helmet.
      • Shield: Round shield with an Athene Owl design.
      • Figure(s): Think of a saltier Maximus from the movie Gladiator.
    • History: The general whom persuaded the Athenians to invest their income from silver mines in a war navy of 200 Triremes. A key figure during the Persian Wars, he commanded the victorious Athenian navy at the decisive battle of Salamis in 479 BC. Later, he pursued an active policy against the Persians in the Aegean, thereby laying the foundations of future Athenian power. Ostracised by the Athenians, he was forced to flee to the protection of the Persians.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Naval Enhancement
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (When garrisoned in a ship, all nearby war ships are 20% faster. Ships are also built 20% faster during his lifespan).

Class: Hero 2.

    • Hacker Armament: Spear.
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: White tunic with purple trimmings.
      • Helmet: As for Spartiate. Striped Plume.
      • Shield: As for Spartiate.
      • Other: Looks like a meaner and badder Spartiates. Long hair poking down out of the bottom of his helmet, with beard. Think of Aragorn from the Lord of the Rings movies. Include a red cloak for artistic license and for differentiation from the "common Spartiates." (approved by Paul).
    • History: The king of Sparta, whom fought and died at the battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC. He successfully blocked the way of the huge Persian army through the narrow passage with his 7000 men, until Xerxes was made aware of a secret unobstructed path. Finding the enemy at his rear, Leonidas sent home most of his troops, choosing to stay behind with 300 hand-picked hoplites and win time for the others to withdraw.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Infantry Enhancement
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (Nearby friendly Hoplites and Spartiates have +20% attack and +10% armor.)

Class: Hero 3.

    • Hacker Armament: Spear.
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: White tunic with purple trimmings.
      • Helmet: Thracian type.
      • Shield: Hoplon.
      • Figure(s): Similar to hoplite, but cuirass is covered with lamellar plate mail.
    • History: Xenophon (c. 430 B. C. to c. 355 B. C.) was a Greek soldier and (later) historian who was born in Athens of an oligarch family and was a student of Socrates during his youth. In 401 B. C., Xenophon joined an army of Greek mercenaries lead by Clearchus and four other generals who were aiding Cyrus the Younger in his military campaign against his brother, King Artaxerxes II. He initially went along as a civilian observer and guest of his friend Proxenus who was one of the five generals. Unfortunately for the Greeks, Cyrus was killed in the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 B. C. and the 10000 Greeks found themselves alone in enemy territory, more than 1000 miles from the nearest Greek colony. In addition, the leaders of the force and a hundred captains were treacherously murdered during a negotiation by the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. On the very night after the assassination of Clearchus, the other generals and captains, Xenophon endeavored to rally the spirits of the surviving officers, successfully, and through the night they reorganized the army as if it had not been decapitated of its leadership. Through the timely intervention of a civilian hanger-on the Greek phalanx met the new day confident and ready to fight again, survive regardless of the odds against doing so. Xenophon was elected one of the new Greek leaders chosen to lead the army in its retreat out of Persia. In a march that lasted five months, traveled over 1500 miles, and overcoming many obstacles (both external and internal), they finally reached the colony of Trapezus (now Trabzon, Turkey) on the Black Sea, and then further found their way by land and sea legs back to the Greek homelands in a journey that took more than a year and a half altogether. As one of the five new Strategists and most junior at that (having never been a soldier), Xenophon is given the task of commanding the rearmost division, the position that turned out to be the most dangerous during the “Anabasis”, or “March Up Country”. Xenophon repetitively demonstrated his brilliance and leadership qualities in effecting new organizations of light troops and cavalry to include the tactics of their employment in the protection of the phalanx in countering and overcoming their adversaries along the route of march to a degree that he becomes the acknowledged leader of the entire force even though Cheirisophus was the senior strategist who commanded the van and all the other strategists outranked him. The story of the retreat from Cunaxa, which Xenophon himself wrote in the third person (as was the custom of the times), is one of the most famous feats of all time in recorded military history. Xenophon went on to fight and lead troops in numerous battles then later write numerous books on military tactics, organization and command throughout the remainder of his lifetime. Other than the legacy of the Anabasis itself his legacy left to the annals of warfare really took effect when Phillip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great (also a stude3nt of Socrates for a time) succeeding him put Xenophon’s knowledge of warfighting to work for them and the latter went on to conquer most of the known world at the time.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Speed Enhancement
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (When placed into formation all units in the formation +15% speed and +15% armor. Additionally, during Xeno's lifespan, all Peltasts +15% speed.)


Class: Hero1

    • Hacker Armament: As for Macedonian Hetairoi.
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Purple tunic.
      • Helmet: Gold helmet.
      • Shield: As for Macedonian Hetairoi.
      • Figure(s): As for Macedonian Hetairoi.
      • Mount: As for Macedonian Hetairoi.
    • History: The king of Macedonia (359 BC - 336 BC), he carried out vast monetary and military reforms in order to make his kingdom the most powerful force in the Greek world. Greatly enlarged the size of Macedonia by conquering much of Thrace and subduing the Greeks. Murdered in Aegae while planning a campaign against Persia.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Cavalry Enhancement
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (All nearby friendly SUs gain a +20% attack boost.)

Class: Hero2.

    • Hacker Armament: A mean looking Kopis.
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: As portrayed on the "Battle of Issos" mosaic.
      • Helmet: Bronze "Lion" helmet, complete with flowing crest and feathers.
      • Shield: As portrayed on the "Battle of Issos" mosaic.
      • Figure(s): As portrayed on the "Battle of Issos" mosaic.
      • Mount: Bucephalus.
    • History: The most powerful hero of them all - son of Philip II, king of Macedonia (336 BC - 323 BC). After conquering the rest of the Thracians and quelling the unrest of the Greeks, Alexander embarked on a world-conquest march. Defeating the Persian forces at Granicus (334 BC), Issus (333 BC) and Gaugamela (331 BC), he became master of the Persian Empire. Entering India, he defeated king Porus at Hydaspes (326 BC), but his weary troops made him halt. Died in Babylon at the age of 33 while planning a campaign against Arabia.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: Hero Killer
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (All nearby cavalry units, including Super Cavalry, are 10% faster and have +15% attack.)
      • "Herocide Bonus" (+10% attack bonus vs. enemy heroes.)

Class: Hero3.

    • Hacker Armament: Sarissa; Short Sword (ornamental).
    • Ranged Armament: None.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: 16 kg metal armour. Purple tunic.
      • Helmet: A fancy hat or a crown of laurels.
      • Shield: Phalangite pelta.
      • Figure(s): 
    • History: One of the Diadochi, king of Macedonia (294 BC - 288 BC), Demetrios was renowned as one of the bravest and most able successors of Alexander. As the son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, he fought and won many important battles early on and was proclaimed king, along with his father, in 306 BC. Losing his Asian possessions after the battle of Ipsos, he later won the Macedonian throne. Fearing lest they should be overpowered by Demetrios, the other Diadochi united against him and defeated him.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Siege Enhancement
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (All nearby siege weapons have 50% greater range and LOS (Poliorcetes means "the taker of cities").)


  • Herocide Bonus: Alexander the Great has an attack bonus versus all other enemy heroes in the game. This gives him the unique qualification as a "hero killer."


  • Melee Infantry: Hoplite.
  • Ranged Infantry: Thracian Peltast.
  • Cavalry: Hippeus.

Structure Description


    • Class: House.
    • History: Hellenic houses from the Classical Age were generally humble yet stylish. During the Hellenistic Age, however, luxurious palaces and estates became commonplace in the rich Hellenistic metropolises like Antioch, Alexandria and Seleucia.
    • Class: Farmstead.
    • History: Grain wasn't plentiful in Hellas, which is why it was carefully stored in granaries, some of it being reserved for times of siege.
    • Class: Field.
    • History: Even though Greece is a rugged country, farming was still one of the most common sources of food. Farms were built in small villages and outside city walls.
    • Class: Corral.
    • History: Basic animal pen. Also for horses, which were the domain of the truly wealthy in Greece.
    • Class: Mill.
    • History: Resources and building materials were kept in warehouses.
    • Class: Scout Tower.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants.


    • Class: Town Centre.
    • History: During the Great Colonisation, the Hellenes built numerous colonies all over the shores of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, which became miniature versions of Greece on foreign soil.
    • Class: Dock.
    • History: Greece is a sea country, which is why some of the greatest Hellenic and Hellenistic cities like Ephesus, Corinth, Alexandria and Antioch were built by the sea. It should also be noted that all colonies during the Great Colonisation were thriving port centres, which traded with the local population.
    • Class: Temple.
    • History: The Hellenes built marvelous temples in order to honor their polytheistic pantheon. While all gods were venerated, a specific patron deity was supposed to watch over each polis.
    • Class: Barracks.
    • History: The Strategion was the main military headquarters, where important decisions were taken and plans for battles discussed by the Strategoi.
    • Class: Blacksmith.
    • History: The earliest Greek smiths worked in copper, then bronze, and then finally iron.
    • Class: Market.
    • History: The most important place in most Classical Greek polises, the Emporeion served many purposes - it was a stage for public speeches and debates, as well as a market.
    • Class: Wall.
    • History: All Hellenic cities were surrounded by stone walls for protection against enemy raids. Some of these fortifications, like the Athenian Long Walls, for example, were massive structures.
    • Class: Tower.
    • History: Towers were an important part of city fortifications. The defending troops shot arrows at the enemy and poured boiling oil over the assailants
        • Class: Gate.
        • History: The gate for the city wall. In some cases these gates could be quite elaborately decorated.


    • Class: Fortress.
    • History: The Acropolis was usually a fortified citadel in the upper part of the city. The Athenian Akropolis was renowned for its marvelous temples, among which was the Parthenon, while the Acro-Corinthus was highly prized by the Macedonians for its strategic location and good defenses.


    • Class: SB1.
    • History: Greek theaters were places where the immortal tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and many other talented dramatists were staged to the delight of the populace. They were instrumental in enriching Hellenic culture.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special:
      • Must be built in order to use Hellenisation CB.
      • Each additional Theatron reduces the delay between each use of Hellenisation by 30 seconds.
      • Limited to 3 Theatrons per player (therefore Hellenisation delay can be reduced to no more than 30 seconds).
    • Class: SB2.
    • History: The Gymnasion was a vital place in Hellenistic cities, where physical exercises were performed and social contacts established.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Trains all Super Units for both Hellenes sub-factions.
    • Class: SB3.
    • History: The Prytaneion is the meeting place for the city elders to dine and to make swift decisions.
    • Requirements: None.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Trains all Hero units for both Hellenes sub-factions.

Civilization Bonus

  • CB1
    • History: The Hellenes were skilled architects and builders. Some of their structures have stood for thousands of years.
    • Effect: All structures +10% Health (but also +10% longer Build Time).
  • CB2
    • History: The Greeks were highly successful in Hellenising various foreigners. During the Hellenistic Age, Greek was the 'lingua franca' of the Ancient World, spoken widely from Spain to India.
    • Effect: Every 90 seconds, a random unit from another civilization is produced from the Theatron and comes under control of the player. This occurs automatically and without cost - though each unit will require sufficient population slots to support. Units with construction capability will only be able to build Hellenic structures. Requires: Theatron Special Structure.

Team Bonus

  • TB
    • History: The sacred Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was among the most highly cherished sanctuaries by Hellenes and foreigners alike. The Lydian king Croesus, for example, consulted the advice of the god before going to war with Cyrus the Great of Persia.
    • Effect: All units and allied units have increased LOS. ~ 10%


  • Infantry: Very good, probably the best in the game. All technologies. Archers are the exception: neither here, nor there. Archery techs average.
  • Cavalry: Mediocre to poor (except for Hetairoi, which are excellent). Nothing to match the cavalry of the Persians, for instance.
  • Naval: Very good. Almost all technologies.
  • Siege: Good. Most technologies.
  • Economy:
    • Farming: Mediocre. They should get some of the technologies, but not the most advanced ones.
    • Mining: Very good. Almost all, if not all, technologies. Silver and gold mines have been discovered and exploited in Greece and Macedonia. Coinage was highly developed, especially after the reform of Philip II.
    • Lumbering: Mediocre. Same as farming.
    • Hunting: Very limited. It was practiced mostly as a sport by Macedonian kings.
    • Land Trade: Mediocre. Definitely nothing to match that of the best civilizations in the area.
    • Naval Trade: Very good, one of the best in the game. Almost all techs.
    • Architecture: Above average. I would say something on the order of 80% of that of the Persians. Better for the Poleis branch than for the Macedonians.
    • Defenses: Poleis - Very good. Macedonia - 80% of those of Poleis.

Special Technologies


  • ST1
    • History: The classical phalanx formation was developed about VIII century BC. It was eight men deep and over two hundred men wide, and used overlapping shields and combined pushing power. "Othismos" refers to the point in a phalanx battle where both sides try to shove each other out of formation, attempting to breaking up the enemy lines and routing them.
    • Effect: The player gains the ability to order his troops into a PHALANX formation, providing +30% Attack and +30% Pierce Armor if attacked from the front.
  • ST2
    • History: Shortly after the great naval victories at Salamis and Mykale, the Greek city-states instituted the so-called Delian League in 478 BC, whose purpose was to push the Persians out of the Aegean region. The allied states contributed ships and money, while the Athenians offered their entire navy.
    • Effect: Triremes are 20% cheaper and build 20% faster.
    • Alt Effect: A possible alternative effect would be to make each Trireme built act like a "relic" that grants the player a (very small) trickle of Metal resource, since the Athenians used their fleet to police the shipping lanes of the Aegean and to extort payment from their "allies" and subject cities.


  • ST1
    • History: Once coming to the throne, Philip II set about reforming the ragtag Macedonian army into a fearsome professional force. One such reform is the SYNTAGMA formation, derived from the oblique battle front developed by the Theban commander Epaminondas. The phalanx, consisting of 256 men, is arranged in the following way – 16 men in width and 16 in depth.
    • Effect: The player gains the ability to order his spear infantry into a SYNTAGMA formation: irresistible charge of the Macedonian phalangites, which is vulnerable only in the rear. The formation increases the frontal Armor for all Pezhetairoi in the unit by around 50% and decreases Movement Speed by about 25%. The function of this formation is to pin the enemy down rather than slaughter them, so there is no Attack bonus. The actual punching power would come from the cavalry or swifter allied infantry units flanking and surrounding the enemy soldiers pinned on the syntagma's pikes.
  • ST2
    • History: Beginning with Alexander, the Hellenistic monarchs founded many cities throughout their empires, where Greek culture and art blended with local customs to create the motley Hellenistic civilization.
    • Effect: Town Centers receive double Health.


  • Misc. "standard" technology
    • History: Paeans were battle hymns that were sung by the hoplites when they charged the enemy lines. One of the first known Paeans were composed by Tirteus, a warrior poet of Sparta, during the First Messenian War.
    • Effect: Infantry move faster.