Units Description


Class: Citizen Infantry Swordsman. Swordsman-Heavy Skirmisher hybrid (Advanced and Elite ranks).

    • Hacker Armament: ​Gladius.
    • Ranged Armament:
      Basic - None.
      Advanced – ​Pilum.
      Elite – Pilum.
    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: [Pectorale. Wide tunic, sleeveless. At Advanced, gains chain mail, greave on left leg. At Elite gains greave on right leg. ]
        Basic – Pectorale with muscled embossing.
        Advanced – lorica hamata. Greave on left leg.
        Elite – greaves on both legs.
      • Helmet: [Montefortino helmet.]
        Basic – Montefortino helmet.
        Advanced – Montefortino helmet.
        Elite – Montefortino helmet with white plume
      • Shield: [Large oval shield.]
        Basic – Curved red oval shield.
        Advanced – Curved red oval shield.
        Elite – Curved white oval shield.
      • Figure(s): - Wide sleeveless tunic is player color, plus sandals (caligae). He will wear a greave on the left leg for Advanced and on both for the Elite.
    • History: The Hastati (sing. Hastatus) were young men over 20 years old who made up the first line of heavy infantry in the Punic War era Republican army. Usually numbered 1200 men in 10 maniples. Initially they threw pila (the plural of pilum, the Roman javelin) at the enemy and then engaged with swords. In battle the Hastasti were expected to weaken or tire the enemy line before the second Roman line engages. In League of Empires. they will serve as swordsmen. At the Advanced level they will upgrade to Princeps status. Princepes (sing. Princeps) were the second line of heavy infantry. Older than the Hastati, but were otherwise identical in appearance and armament except that the Principes had better armor. Usually numbered 1200 men in ten maniples. They would enter battle once the Hastati had worn down the enemy, throwing their pila into the enemy ranks before charging in with swords. Here they function as heavy skirmishers.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: To engage the enemy at close range with swords after a javelin volley.
    • Special: Basic rank = Hastatus. Advanced & Elite ranks = Gain a "volley" ability. They discharge a volley of pila (heavy Roman javelins) before closing on the enemy with their swords.

Class: Citizen Infantry Javelineer

    • Ranged Armament: Light javelin. Gladius (ornamental).
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Wide tunic, sleeveless.
      • Helmet: Simple helmet with a wolf's head on top.
      • Shield: Parma (three-foot strongly built round shield).
      • Figure(s): Basic – Poorer than all other infantry. Slightly boyish. Advanced – Slightly less impoverished. Elite – Beard
    • History: The Velites were the light skirmish infantry of the Polybian legion. They were the younger men who could not afford hastatus equipment or boys too young to serve otherwise. They usually numbered 1200 men in squads of twenty assigned to the maniples of the Hastati, Principes, and Triarii. Their job was the harry the enemy lines before the heavy infantry engaged and support the cavalry.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: Light skirmish support of the legion.

Class: Citizen Infantry Spearman.

    • Hacker Armament: Hasta (large 8-foot thrusting spear). Gladius (ornamental).
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: [Heavy chainmail hauberk. Greaves.]
        Basic – Heavy Lorica hamata.
        Advanced – Heavy lorica hamata. Greave on left leg,
        Elite– Heavy lorica hamata. Greaves on both legs
      • Helmet: [Etrusco-Corinthian helmet.]
        Basic – Etrusco-Corinthian helmet.
        Advanced – Etrusco-Corinthian helmet.
        Elite –Etrusco-Corinthian helmet with black crest and two black feathers.
      • Shield: [Large oval shield.]
        Basic – Curved blue oval shield.
        Advanced – Curved blue oval shield.
        Ultimate – Curved blue oval shield.
      • Figure(s): - Wide tunic (sleeveless like that of the Hastatus)of player color, plus sandals (caligae). He will wear a greave on the left leg for Advanced and on both for the Elite.
    • History: The Triarii (sing. Triarius) were veterans of military service, usually in their 30s or 40s, with money to afford the best weapons and equipment. Usually numbered 600 men in 10 half-maniples. They made up the third line of heavy infantry, armed with hasta, the Roman thrusting spear. If the Hastati and Principes could not defeat the enemy, the Triarii would come forward and finish them off. Most of the time they remained in reserve, historically more defensive then offensive.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Function: - Close combat once the Princips and Hastatus wore the enemy down. Also good against cavalry.


Class: Citizen Cavalry Spearman.

    • Hacker Armament: Lancea – overarm for stabbing. Gladius (ornamental)
    • Appearance:
      • Garb:
        Basic – Pectoral.
        Advanced – Bronze muscled cuirass. (Very similar to Companion Cavalry, but use bright red and blue clothing to make it more Italian; if pteruges are used, make sure they are red, not white (too Macedonian). This guy is going to look like a Roman clone of a Companion Cavalryman: note different sword and no spear!)
        Elite – Lorica hamata. Greaves. Cape, blue or dark red/violet.
      • Helmet:
        Basic – Boeotian helmet.
        Advanced – Boeotian helmet.
        Elite – Boeotian helmet with plume.
      • Shield:
        Basic – None.
        Advanced – Round shield.
        Elite – Round shield.
      • Figure(s): -
      • Mount:
        Basic – White horse, bareback.
        Advanced – Black horse with leather chamfron and riding blanket (has money and uses it).
        Elite – Brown horse with metal chamfron on head and riding blanket. Guy in front, but with greaves and plume.
    • History: Before the Marian reform, only members of the ordo equester and the sons of the senatorial class could serve as cavalry. Notwithstanding, it has always paled in comparison with Roman infantry. Each legion has 300 cavalry attached, divided into ten turmae. The cavalry overall numbered 1800 men drawn from publicly and privately outfitted troopers. From the middle of the 2nd Century BC onward, Rome started relying on auxiliary cavalry made up of Thracians, Numidians, Gauls and Germans.
    • Garrison: 1.

Class: Citizen Cavalry Javelineer.

    • Ranged Armament: Javelin. Gladius (ornamental).
    • History: Rome's Italian allies frequently supplied Rome's armies with light cavalry, an arm in which Rome was often deficient. After the Social War concluded, all Italy became Roman citizens and thus could enroll into Roman army units. Upon the Marian Reforms, the role of the Italian allied cavalry was given to auxiliary units of Thracians, Numidians, Gauls and Germans.
    • Garrison: 1.


Class: Female Citizen.

    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: Long tunic.
      • Helmet: None.
      • Shield: None.
    • History: Along with men, Roman women also played an important part in politics. The outstanding examples were Octavia, sister of Augustus and wife of Mark Antony, Livia, wife of Augustus and mother of Tiberius, and Agrippina, niece and wife of Claudius and mother of Nero.
    • Garrison: 1.

Class: Priest.

    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Long purple tunic.
      • Helmet: None.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): He will have the look of an old man.
    • History: During the Republic, the position of priest was elevated and required a lot of responsibilities, which is why priests were by no means chosen randomly. The position of Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of the Roman religion, was occupied by such prominent figures as Julius Caesar, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Augustus.
    • Garrison: 1.

Class: Trader.

    • Appearance:
      • Garb: White shirt and brown pants.
      • Helmet: None.
      • Shield: None.
      • Figure(s): A young man.
      • Mount: Mounted on a horse (no matter the color).
    • History: Since the start of the Roman Republic, the plebeians dedicated themselves to commerce, while patricians owned and cultivated the land. Trading was considered negatively, so patricians tried to avoid it, or made some of their plebeian client's trade, using their clients' names.
    • Garrison: 1.

Class: Fishing Ship.

    • Appearance:
      • Shell: Roman fishing boats were rather small and constructed from wood and marked by the extensive use of iron nails. A distinguishing feature however was the addition of a central compartment in the center of the boat that could be flooded on purpose and drained at will.
    • History: For the Romans fishing quickly became the plebs’ favorite pastime from the early days of the Roman Republic when fishing was still done on the Tiber. However towards the end of the Republic the fishing craze spread to the nobility, and hit its peak from the 2nd Century BC to the 4th Century AD. As both a livelihood and as a sport, fishing actually outpaced hunting.
    • Garrison: Cannot.
    • Garrison Capacity: 1; support, infantry
    • Function: Gathering: Only method of collecting meat from fish.

Class: Merchant Ship.

    • Appearance:
      • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: The Corbita was the most famous class of Roman merchant ships, known as Oneraria. They had a cargo capacity of 60-300 tons on average, with variants known to carry as much as 400 tons. These vessels traveled all over the Mediterranean, and could be found literally on every trade route.
    • Garrison: Cannot.

Class: Bireme.

    • Appearance:
      • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: By the time of the Second Punic War the Romans had adopted an improved bireme design created by the Liburnians of Illyria. Faster, lighter, and more agile then conventional warships, the Liburna (sing. Liburnus) would quickly become widespread throughout the Roman navy. They appear to have been used in support of Triremes.
    • Garrison: Cannot.

Class: Trireme.

    • Appearance: -
      • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: The Trireme was the most common warship of the Mediterranean – it was used by Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans alike. The Romans were already using these vessels by the beginning of the Punic Wars, and underwent a number of modifications. These remain controversial, but it seems that Triremes remained the mainstay of the fleet for this era.
    • Garrison: Cannot.

Class: Quinquereme.

    • Appearance: -
      • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: The Quinquereme was the battleship of the Roman navy. They were adopted after a Carthaginian Quinquereme washed up on Roman shores during the First Punic War, allowing them to copy the design (albeit a bit heavier). The Romans introduced a number of modifications, but the most famous was the harpax, a kind of harpoon that replaced the corvus by the time of the Second Punic War.
    • Garrison: Cannot.


Class: Catapult.

    • Appearance: -
      • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: The Ballista was a torsion powered heavy artillery piece that fired along a flat directory at long ranges. They could fire a extensive selection of shot, making the Ballista a versatile weapon against stationary or slow moving targets. The downside was the size of the device made them difficult to transport, deploy, and aim. By the Punic Wars era the usage of Ballista's had become regularized, though their numbers to each legion are unknown.
    • Garrison: 1.

Class: Bolt Shooter.

    • History: The Scorpion was the smaller cousin of the Ballista. Like the former, it was a torsion powered artillery piece firing along a flat directory. But the Scorpion was smaller, and designed as a anti-personnel weapon, with the shot to match. This eliminated the problems of the Ballista, but made them less effective against buildings. Their versatility and size made the Scorpion the most popular artillery piece in the Roman army.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Special: Able to throw darts at a distance of 350 meters.

Class: Ram.

    • Appearance:
      • Shell: (Standard).
    • History: There are several famous sieges during the time of the Republic which required the use of extensive siege weaponry – Syracuse (212 BC), Carthage (148 – 146 BC) and Tigranocerta (68 BC) – they were all carried out successfully.
    • Garrison: 1.


Class: Champion Infantry Swordsman.

    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: Roman wide, sleeveless tunic, player color. Lorica squamata (iron scale armor) – fancy, has money. Greaves.
      • Helmet: Italo-Corinthian helmet or Attic helmet with feathers.
      • Shield: Curved red oval shield.
      • Figure(s): -
    • History: The Extraordinarii were best of the infantry fielded by Rome's Italic allies (the socii) that were picked out by the commanding Consul and served under him directly. They were charged with function of vanguard, rearguard, and bodyguard. In battle the Extraordinarii were expected to act as a special unit, to give the Consul additional tactical options.
    • Garrison: 1.
    • Special: Like the Advanced and Elite Swordsman, the Extraordinarius throws an initial volley of pila javelins before closing with his sword to engage the enemy.

Class: Champion Cavalry Swordsman.

    • Hacker Armament: Cavalry sword.
    • Ranged Armament: Javelin (Lancea)
    • Appearance: -
      • Garb: Heavy bronze cuirass, player color tunic, greaves on both legs
      • Helmet: Boeotian helmet with red plume or Attic helmet with feathers.
      • Shield: Round cavalry shield
      • Mount: Powerful horse with saddle blanket strapped to back and elaborate bridle
    • History: The Equites Consulares were the best of the Roman cavalry that were picked out by the commanding Consul and served under him directly. They functioned about identical to later Praetorian cavalry, but were usually made up of the most loyal Italic allies. The Italic cavalry was of better quality and quantity then the citizen cavalry of the Republic, and were highly prized for service.
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Function: To drive off enemy cavalry allowing the heavy infantry to win the battle, as well as scouting, patrol, and chasing defeated enemies.
    • Special: Consular Cavalry can switch between sword and javelin.

Class: Atlas-only champion Infantry Spearman.

    • Hacker Armament: Spear/Hasta.

Class: Atlas-only champion Infantry Swordsman.

    • Hacker Armament: Gladius.
    • Garrison: 1.

  Class: Atlas-only champion Infantry Swordsman.

    • Hacker Armament: Sword (Gladius).
    • Ranged Armament: Javelin (Pilum).
    • Garrison: 1.


Class: Hero Cavalry Swordsman.

    • Hacker Armament: Gladius.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Light iron armor; elaborate but functional.
      • Helmet: None.
      • Shield: Medium wooden and leathered slightly rectangular shield.
      • Mount: Light white slightly armored horse.
    • History: Dictator for six months during the Second Punic War. Instead of attacking the most powerful Hannibal, he started a very effective war of attrition against him. Later, he became a semi-legendary figure and the model of a tough, courageous Roman, and was bestowed the honorific title, "The Shield of Rome".
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Special:
      • "Delayer" Aura (Within range of him, all of the player's Roman soldiers gain +3 armor levels of all types).

Class: Hero Cavalry Swordsman.

    • Hacker Armament: Gladius.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Lorica hamata with medals hung over it; elaborate but functional. Iron greaves.
      • Helmet: Attic helmet with feather tufts and medium crest.
      • Shield: Medium wooden and leathered slightly rectangular shield.
      • Mount: Black horse with metal chanfron.
    • History: Marcus Claudius Marcellus, 268 - 208 BC, a soldier of the first war with Carthage, a hero of the Second Punic War, and victor over the Gauls at Clastidium. Plutarch describes him as a man of war, strong in body and constitution, with an iron will to fight on. As a general he was immensely capable, standing alongside Scipio Africanus and Claudius Nero as the most effective Roman generals of the entire Second Punic War. In addition to his military achievements Marcellus was a fan of Greek culture and arts, which he enthusiastically promoted in Rome. He met his demise when his men were ambushed near Venusia. In honor of the respect the people held for him, Marcellus was granted the title of "Sword of Rome".
    • Garrison: 2.
    • Special:
      • "Hero" Aura (Roman infantry have +20% greater attack within his aura).

Class: Hero Cavalry Swordsman.

    • Hacker Armament: Gladius.
    • Appearance:
      • Garb: Muscled cuirass. Greaves.
      • Helmet: Attic helmet with large crest.
      • Shield: None.
    • History: He was the first really successful Roman general. His campaigns in Spain and Africa helped to bring Carthage to its knees during the Second Punic War. He defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC.
    • Garrison: 1
    • Special:
      • "Divide et Impera" Special (He has the ability to convert enemy units en masse at a great cost of metal). Divide and conquer' was the main principle in Rome's foreign politics throughout its long history. The Romans lured enemies or neutral factions to their side by offering them certain privileges. In due period of time, friends as well as foes were subjugated.


  • Melee Infantry: Hastatus (Swordsman).
  • Ranged Infantry: Veles (Skirmisher).
  • Cavalry: Eques Romanus (Cavalry Spearman).

Structures Description


Class: House.

    • History: The word "domus" is the root of the English word "domicile" which means a house or home. The typical Roman middle and upper-class domus had many rooms, a skylight to collect water and provide sunlight, and a tile roof. An attached garden was later included under Hellenistic influence.

Class: Farmstead

    • History: As Rome grew more and more affluent, many of the rich senators built lavish villas throughout Italy. Most of them emulated earlier Hellenistic examples; remains can be seen even today at Pompeii.

Class: Field.

    • History: The possession of fields once determined the difference between patricians and plebeians. It is told that Cincinnatus possessed only a small field, the smaller possible for a patrician. The distribution of the Ager Publicum was one of the most important issues of the late 2nd century BC. Tiberius Gracchus was the pioneer in this field, and his brother Gaius succeeded in carrying out a number of reforms, which improved the situation of Roman farmers, the backbone of Roman military.

Class: Corral.

    • History: For the keeping of animals.

Class: Storehouse.

    • History: Used for the dropping off of resources.
    • Class: Barracks.
    • History: Romans specialized in the building of military camps and forts. A few of them still survive.

Class: Stable.

Class: Outpost.

Class: Sentry Tower.

Class: Atlas-only building.


Class: Town Centre.

    • History: The town center was the center of a Roman city, where citizens gathered for economic and political reasons.

Class: Dock.

  • History: Being an inland city, Rome was still connected to the port of Ostia through means of the Tiber. Merchant ships from all over the Mediterranean arrived at Ostia, bringing all kinds of luxurious goods. The construction of a reliable harbor was planned by Julius Caesar and carried out by Claudius.

Class: Temple.

    • History: Roman temples in general were not meant for congregational worship. Instead the temple housed a statue of whatever deity the temple was dedicated to and what was needed to carry out the ceremonial and cultic practice necessary for worship. The actual activity was performed outside.

Class: Forge.

    • History: The Roman army stored and repaired its equipment in the armamentarium of the camp.

Class: Market.

    • History: Roman markets were flush with goods from across Europe and the Mediterranean.

Class: Defense Tower.

    • History: For use by the Romans to keep an eye over surrounding hostile territory.

Class: Wall.

    • History: Strong city walls.

Class: Wall Tower.

    • History: Towers for the defense of the city walls.

Class: Wall Gate.

    • History: The gate of a wall was the center of attention during any siege.


Class: Fortress.

    • History: A fortified auxiliary camp.

Class: Arsenal.

    • History: A fortified auxiliary camp.


Class: SB 1.

    • Phase: Town.

Class: SB 2.

    • History: Sometimes it was a temporary camp built facing the route by which the army is to march, other times a defensive or offensive (for sieges) structure. Within this gate the tents of the first centuries or cohorts are pitched, and the dragons (ensigns of cohorts) and other ensigns planted. The Decumane gate is directly opposite to the Praetorian in the rear of the camp, and through this the soldiers are conducted to the place appointed for punishment or execution. It has a turf wall, and it's surrounded by a canal filled with water whenever possible for extra defense. Many towns started up as bigger military camps to evolve to more complicated cities.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Allows players to train infantry units from a fast-building army camp in enemy territory. The Entrenched Camp loses Health over time, making it a temporary structure.

Class: SB 3.

    • History: Turf and palisade walls built by legionaries during sieges.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Allows players to build palisades in enemy territory in order to cut off reinforcements and supplies. Like other walls, it comes with gates and (wooden) towers. The Roman Siege Wall loses Health over time, making it a temporary structure.

Class: Atlas-only special building

    • History: The Ampitheatre of Pompeii is one of the oldest ampitheatres (open-air venue for entertainment purposes) in ancient Rome, and a well-known gladiator arena.
    • Requirements: -
    • Special: Trains hoplomachi and murmillones.


Class: Wonder.

    • History: The greatest temple in Rome. It stood atop the Capitoline Hill and overlooked the city.
    • Requirements: Temple.
    • Phase: City.
    • Special: Researches the 'Sibylline Books' special technology.

Civilization Bonuses

  • CB 1
    • History: The Romans commonly used the Testudo or "turtle" formation for defense: Legionaries were formed into hollow squares with twelve men on each side, standing so close together that their shields overlapped like fish scales.
    • Effect: Roman Legionaries can form a Testudo. The Legionaries at the front, back and sides hold their shields to the outside and the Legionaries in the Centre raise their shields above their heads. This formation provides improved protection against melee and ranged attacks. However, their movement rate is much slower. The formation button is only available for a group that consists exclusively of Roman Legionaries.
  • CB 2
    • History: Roman Citizenship was highly prized in the ancient world. Basic rights and privileges were afforded Roman citizens that were denied other conquered peoples. It is said that harming a Roman citizen was akin to harming Rome herself, and would cause the entire might of Rome to fall upon the perpetrator.
    • Effect: Any Roman citizen-soldier fighting within Roman territory gains a non-permanent +10% bonus in armor.

Team Bonus

  • TB 1
    • History: Being allied with Rome came with great benefits (as well as great peril).
    • Effect: Allied citizen-soldiers gain a +10% attack when in Roman territory.


  • Infantry: Strong. Among the strongest in the game, only Greeks in their splendor were better.
  • Cavalry: Not very good. Very few upgrades.
  • Naval: The Roman Navy wasn't powerful, but their advanced technology helped improving them.
  • Siege: Very powerful Siege. Romans were ready to attack every kind of fortress.
  • Economy: Many techs.
    • Farming: Above average.
    • Mining: Developed. Better than average.
    • Lumbering: Average.
    • Hunting: Below average.
    • Land Trade: Not as developed as Naval trade.
    • Naval Trade: After defeating the Carthaginians, Romans were the Masters of the Mediterranean sea. Developed.
  • Architecture: Advanced.
  • Defenses: Very powerful defensive systems.

Special Technologies

  • ST 1
    • History: In response to a Gallic-Germanic invasion, the great Gaius Marius reformed the Roman army, turning it from a part-time militia into a professional military force.
    • Effect:
      • All infantry (Hastatus, Principes, Veles, Triarius, Extraordinarius) instantly upgrade to Marian Legionnaires, a champion swordsman whose only citizen-soldier function is in the building of Army Camps, Siege Walls, and Fortresses. Furthermore, no longer can citizen-soldiers be trained, but rather only Marian Legionnaires. This has a large economic impact and is generally a late-game attempt at a game-changer.
      • Swift Numidian Cavalry unlocked.
  • ST 2
    • Specific Name: Libri Sibyllini
    • History: The Sibylline Books or 'Libri Sibyllini' were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire.
    • Effect: All units and structures +25% vision range. All remaining technologies -50% cost and research time.